Paul L. Caron
Dean





Saturday, May 18, 2024

What Law Students Should Know About Generative AI Before Their Summer Jobs

Legal Tech News:  What Law Students Should Know About Generative AI Before Their Summer Jobs, by Nick Hafen (BYU):

Open AI ChatGPTFor law school students preparing to start their summer jobs, internships, externships and clerkships, now is the time to get up to speed on the latest in legal technology: generative AI (GenAI).

Your employer may be excited about, opposed to, or oblivious to this relatively new and rapidly evolving technology. In any of those cases, you can impress your employer and distinguish yourself from other job candidates by being familiar with the basics of GenAI technology, how it can empower legal professionals and potential hazards to watch out for. ...

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May 18, 2024 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Wednesday, April 3, 2024

Yale Law School Launches Free Open Access Legal Scholarship Repository

Yale Law School Today, Open Access Law Archive Platform Launches:

Yale Law Archive LaptopThe Lillian Goldman Law Library at Yale Law School, in collaboration with the Center for Open Science (COS), has announced the launch of Law Archive, the only free open access platform for legal scholarship that integrates collaboration tools, data storage, and sharing of legal scholarship.

The open legal scholarship focus of Law Archive aligns with the mission of the Law Library to support and promote global legal scholarship and research. In development since 2023, Law Archive was inspired by the Law Library’s commitment to access to justice initiatives by filling gaps in the availability of free and open legal information outside of proprietary and predatory frameworks. Researchers, scholars, and the general public have a reliable source for access to current and historical legal commentary and analysis found in legal scholarship.

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April 3, 2024 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Tuesday, March 26, 2024

Call For Legal Ed Tech Papers: 2025 AALS Annual Meeting

Call For Papers: 2025 AALS Annual Meeting:

AALS (2024)The AALS Section on Technology, Law and Legal Education will be hosting up to four sessions at the Annual Meeting in San Francisco, January 7 – 11. There will be two programs introducing a variety of issues involving the intersection of technology and law, one program on the pedagogical opportunities to integrate technology into legal education, and one program to offer a works-in-progress experience for individuals to share the development of their works. 

The topics can be far-ranging, including the integration of artificial intelligence into legal practice, the implications of technology on access to justice, the digital divide, privacy and surveillance, national security, antitrust regulation, intellectual property policies, and much more. The suggested program will have programs that feature discussion on the impact of law and technology on society; law and technology on the legal profession; and law and technology with the legal academy.

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March 26, 2024 in Conferences, Legal Ed Conferences, Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Tuesday, March 5, 2024

Measuring The Political Bias Of ChatGPT

Fabio Motoki, Valdemar Pinho Neto & Victor Rodrigues, More Human Than Human: Measuring ChatGPT Political Bias:

Open AI ChatGPTWe investigate the political bias of a large language model (LLM), ChatGPT, which has become popular for retrieving factual information and generating content. Although ChatGPT assures that it is impartial, the literature suggests that LLMs exhibit bias involving race, gender, religion, and political orientation. Political bias in LLMs can have adverse political and electoral consequences similar to bias from traditional and social media. Moreover, political bias can be harder to detect and eradicate than gender or racial bias.

We propose a novel empirical design to infer whether ChatGPT has political biases by requesting it to impersonate someone from a given side of the political spectrum and comparing these answers with its default. We also propose dose-response, placebo, and profession-politics alignment robustness tests. To reduce concerns about the randomness of the generated text, we collect answers to the same questions 100 times, with question order randomized on each round.

We find robust evidence that ChatGPT presents a significant and systematic political bias toward the Democrats in the US, Lula in Brazil, and the Labour Party in the UK.

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March 5, 2024 in Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Wednesday, February 14, 2024

Generative AI Already Is Making An Impact On Legal Research And Writing

ABA Journal, Generative AI Already Is Making an Impact on Legal Research and Writing:

Open AI ChatGPTLawyers who expect generative artificial intelligence to significantly impact the practice of law see some of the greatest potential in legal research and writing.

In August, a LexisNexis Legal & Professional study of nearly 8,000 lawyers, law students and consumers in the United States and three other countries found 65% of these professionals believe generative AI tools could assist them in researching matters. Meanwhile, 56% believe the tools could help them draft documents.

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February 14, 2024 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Wednesday, January 31, 2024

Law Schools Consider Post-ChatGPT Coursework

ABA Journal, Head of the Class: Law Schools Consider Post-ChatGPT Coursework:

Open AI ChatGPTChatGPT’s unveiling sparked conversations among law faculty, with opinions ranging from banning GPT platforms in certain classes to encouraging experimentation to reconsidering law school pedagogy, professors contacted by the ABA Journal say.

The impact of generative artificial intelligence tools like ChatGPT touches every stage of law school—from admissions to classwork to the law review and the bar—leaving faculty to assess the tool’s threats and opportunities. ...

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January 31, 2024 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Students' Right To Free Inquiry vs. A.I. Usage Policy At Schools And Universities

Martin Kwan (OBOR Legal Research Centre), Students' Right to Free Inquiry vs. A.I. Usage Policy at Schools and Universities, 6 Notre Dame J. on Emerging Tech. __ (2023):

Journal on emerging technologiesSome schools and universities have restricted the use of artificial intelligence, particularly generative AI, by students and staff to various extents.

This work emphasizes and reminds that students' right to free inquiry has to be taken into account when schools are implementing AI usage policies. The predominant justifications used for limiting students' use — namely to prevent plagiarism and reduced learning — are inadequate and have apparently not been duly balanced against free inquiry.

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January 31, 2024 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Thursday, January 4, 2024

Profs Trade Notes As Law Schools Write Generative AI Policies

ABA Journal, Profs Trade Notes as Law Schools Write Generative AI Policies:

Lexis + AIWith more generative artificial intelligence platforms becoming widely available, law schools are adjusting academic integrity polices, while professors are exchanging notes on how best to integrate the emerging technology in the classroom.

Starting in the spring semester this year, second- and third-year law students will have access to Lexis+ AI, a generative AI platform, a little more than a year after OpenAI launched its free ChatGPT chatbot.

As these platforms become available and evolve, law schools are reacting with initial policies that allow professors to adjust the rules to suit the pedagogical needs of their classes. ...

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January 4, 2024 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Monday, January 1, 2024

NY Times: AI Got Smarter In 2023 (Especially On The LSAT And Bar Exam)

New York Times Essay:  10 Charts That Defined 2023, by Steven Rattner:

Some years are defined by a single event or person — a pandemic, a recession, an insurrection — while others are buffeted by a series of disparate forces. Such was 2023. ...

7. A.I. Got (a Lot) Smarter:
Following the debut of OpenAI’s ChatGPT late last year, 2023 was the year artificial intelligence — its novelty, danger and revolutionary promise alike — went mainstream.

NY Times Chat-GPT

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January 1, 2024 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Thursday, December 28, 2023

Law Schools Are Neglecting The Desperate Need For Lawyer Tech Training

Law.com, Law Schools Neglecting Desperate Need for Tech Training:

Cyberattacks are one of the greatest threats facing companies, while harnessing the power of generative AI stands as one of companies’ greatest opportunities.

The trouble for in-house attorneys trying to demonstrate their mettle by managing risk and helping their companies grow and prosper is that most lack deep knowledge of either.

Indeed, 2023 has become the year that practicing attorneys’ long-percolating sentiment that law schools fall short on technology-related education boiled over.

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December 28, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Thursday, December 21, 2023

Teaching To The Tech: Law Schools And The Duty Of Technology Competence

Raymond H. Brescia (Albany), Teaching to the Tech: Law Schools and the Duty of Technology Competence, 62 Washburn L.J. 507 (2023):

As a result of a wide range of emerging technologies, the American legal profession is at a critical inflection point. Some may argue that lawyers face dramatic threats not only to their business models but also to their very usefulness in the face of new technologies that may mean some form of legal guidance will be available to virtually every American with a little bit of computer savvy and access to digital technologies. At the same time, in recent years, the profession has largely imposed upon itself a duty of technology competence, which imposes an array of obligations regarding the use and proliferation of new practice technologies. Since lawyers are obligated to maintain this duty of technology competence, law schools should also have an obligation to teach technology competence as a core professional skill.

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December 21, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Friday, December 15, 2023

ChatGPT, Professor Of Law

Tammy Pettinato Oltz (North Dakota; Google Scholar), ChatGPT, Professor of Law, 2023 U. Ill. J.L. Tech. & Pol'y 207 (2023):

Illinois journal of law technology and policyAlthough ChatGPT was just released by OpenAI in November 2022, legal scholars have already been delving into the implications of the new tool for legal education and the legal profession. Several scholars have recently written fascinating pieces examining ChatGPT’s ability to pass the bar, write a law review article, create legal documents, or pass a law school exam. In the spirit of those experiments, I decided to see whether ChatGPT had potential for lightening the service and teaching loads of law school professors.

To conduct my experiment, I created an imaginary law school professor with a tough but typical week of teaching- and service- related tasks ahead of her. I chose seven common tasks: creating a practice exam question, designing a hand-out for a class, writing a letter of recommendation, submitting a biography for a speaking engagement, writing opening remarks for a symposium, developing a document for a law school committee, and designing a syllabus for a new course. I then ran prompts for each task through ChatGPT to see how well the system performed the tasks.

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December 15, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Thursday, December 14, 2023

The Fourth Industrial Revolution And Legal Education

Steven R. Smith (Cal-Western), The Fourth Industrial Revolution and Legal Education, 39 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 337 (2023):

Georgia state law reviewA “Fourth Industrial Revolution” (4IR) will dramatically change current law students’ careers. Innovations in technology, business, and social structures will require different and more sophisticated legal services. Law school graduates will be responsible for harnessing, encouraging, and establishing legal controls that offer society the benefits of these new technologies while limiting the undesirable side effects. At the same time, the recurring, repetitive practice of law will begin to disappear as more work is done much cheaper and better by machines.

The 4IR presents extraordinary opportunities for law schools, the legal profession, and graduates, but it also presents significant challenges. To prepare students for professional practice and continuous improvement of the justice system, law schools will have to adjust students’ education and focus the curriculum on ensuring new competencies.

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December 14, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Tuesday, December 5, 2023

BLT: Can Large Language Models Handle Basic Legal Text?

Andrew Blair-Stanek (Maryland; Google Scholar), Nils Holzenberger (Institut Polytechnique de Paris) & Benjamin Van Durme (Johns Hopkins; Google Scholar), BLT: Can Large Language Models Handle Basic Legal Text?:

We find that the best publicly available LLMs like GPT-4 and PaLM 2 currently perform poorly at basic text handling required of lawyers or paralegals, such as looking up the text at a line of a witness deposition or at a subsection of a contract. We introduce a benchmark to quantify this poor performance, which casts into doubt LLMs' current reliability as-is for legal practice. Finetuning for these tasks brings an older LLM to near-perfect performance on our test set and also raises performance on a related legal task. This stark result highlights the need for more domain expertise in LLM training.

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December 5, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Monday, December 4, 2023

NY Times: Why Tax Prof Neil Buchanan And Other Liberal Tenured Professors Are Leaving Florida's Public Universities

New York Times, In Florida’s Hot Political Climate, Some Faculty Have Had Enough:

BuchananLiberal-leaning professors are leaving coveted jobs with tenure. And there are signs that recruiting scholars has become harder.

Gov. Ron DeSantis had just taken office in 2019 when the University of Florida lured Neil H. Buchanan, a prominent economist and tax law scholar, from George Washington University.

Now, just four years after he started at the university, Dr. Buchanan has given up his tenured job and headed north to teach in Toronto. In a recent column on a legal commentary website, he accused Florida of “open hostility to professors and to higher education more generally.”

He is not the only liberal-leaning professor to leave one of Florida’s highly regarded public universities. Many are giving up coveted tenured positions and blaming their departures on Governor DeSantis and his effort to reshape the higher education system to fit his conservative principles.

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December 4, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Tax, Tax Daily, Tax News, Tax Prof Moves | Permalink

Friday, November 17, 2023

ChatGPT-4 Passes Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam (MPRE), Beats Law School Graduates And Other Generative AI Models

Gabor Melli (LegalOn Technologies), Daniel Lewis (LegalOn Technologies) & Dru Stevenson (South Texas; Google Scholar), Generative AI Passes the Legal Ethics Exam:

Can Generative AI Pass the Legal Ethics Exam?
Earlier this year, research found that GPT-4 could surpass law students in passing the Uniform Bar Exam. Our study builds on this discovery, testing whether generative AI models can also navigate the rules and fact patterns around legal ethics.

  • We challenged OpenAI's GPT-4 and GPT-3.5, Anthropic's Claude 2, and Google's PaLM 2 Bison to 100 simulated exams, composed of questions crafted by Professor Stevenson to model the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam (MPRE).
  • GPT-4 performed best, answering 74% of questions correctly, an estimated 6% better than the average human test-taker.
  • GPT-4 and Claude 2 both scored above the approximate passing threshold for the MPRE, estimated to range between 56-64% depending on the jurisdiction.

Ethics Exam

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November 17, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Thursday, November 9, 2023

Alarie Presents The Impact Of AI On Legal Education And Law Practice At Pepperdine

Benjamin Alarie (Toronto; Google Scholar) presents The Legal Singularity: How Artificial Intelligence Can Make Law Radically Better (with Abdi Aidid (Toronto)) at Pepperdine today as part of its Dean's Speaker Series: 

Legal singularityLaw today is incomplete, inaccessible, unclear, underdeveloped, and often perplexing to those whom it affects. In The Legal Singularity, Abdi Aidid and Benjamin Alarie argue that the proliferation of artificial intelligence–enabled technology — and specifically the advent of legal prediction — is on the verge of radically reconfiguring the law, our institutions, and our society for the better.

Revealing the ways in which our legal institutions underperform and are expensive to administer, the book highlights the negative social consequences associated with our legal status quo. Given the infirmities of the current state of the law and our legal institutions, the silver lining is that there is ample room for improvement. With concerted action, technology can help us to ameliorate the problems of the law and improve our legal institutions. Inspired in part by the concept of the "technological singularity," The Legal Singularity presents a future state in which technology facilitates the functional "completeness" of law, where the law is at once extraordinarily more complex in its specification than it is today, and yet operationally, the law is vastly more knowable, fairer, and clearer for its subjects. Aidid and Alarie describe the changes that will culminate in the legal singularity and explore the implications for the law and its institutions.

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November 9, 2023 in Colloquia, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Pepperdine Legal Ed, Scholarship | Permalink

Thursday, September 7, 2023

An Empirical Analysis Of Practice-Based Technology Training In Law Schools

Jessica De Perio Wittman (Connecticut; Google Scholar) & Katie Brown (Charleston; Google Scholar), Taking on the Ethical Obligation of Technology Competency in the Academy: An Empirical Analysis of Practice-Based Technology Training Today, 36 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 1 (2023):

Georgetown journal of legal ethicsToday’s lawyers must be technologically competent, per Model Rule of Professional Conduct 1.1. Law schools and law firms were keenly aware of this expectation and summarily responded. While law firms offered more professional development opportunities, law schools began offering various courses focusing on technology skills. These courses have increased and evolved over time as the curriculum has changed with the technology.

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September 7, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Tuesday, September 5, 2023

Generative AI In Law Schools And Colleges

ABA Journal, If Law Schools Prohibit ChatGPT in Writing, Can They Back It Up?:

Open AI ChatGPTUsing artificial intelligence to write admissions essays now comes with significant risks at the University of Michigan Law School, which recently asked applicants to certify that they did not use the technology for drafting purposes.

False statements could result in the cancellation of an admissions offer or expulsion or rescinding a degree, according to the certification language.

Likewise, if admissions office readers go over a candidate’s essay and suspect that technology did the writing, it would give them serious pause, even for a strong candidate, says Sarah C. Zearfoss, the law school’s senior assistant dean. The certification language was introduced this year, and she has not heard of other law schools with similar prohibitions on AI technology.

Many lawyers interviewed by the ABA Journal found the University of Michigan Law School’s new policy surprising. The retributions would be difficult to carry out because there are no good tools to detect the technology in writing, they say. And even if there were, offerings such as ChatGPT will continue to evolve and likely outfox anything created to catch it. ...

Robert Brain, a professor at the Loyola Marymount University’s Loyola Law School, told the Journal that most, if not all, law schools currently have faculty committees considering the issue. ...

“I don’t think anybody is seriously suggesting going back to handwritten blue book essays, but they could cut off take-home tests,” says Brain, who thinks that law schools should teach students to use AI technology. “My personal view is we can’t stop them but also because lawyers are using it,” he says.

Bloomberg Law Op-Ed:  Legal Education in World of AI Should Follow Medical Model, by Marsha Cohen (UC Law-San Francisco):

What would “medical model” legal education look like?

Lawyers for America, invented at UC Hastings (now UC Law San Francisco), is a model that provides students with a different route to learning to be a lawyer while simultaneously helping to improve our country’s massive access to justice problem.

Ponder: Two years of classroom learning and a third year devoted entirely to a well-supervised externship with a legal nonprofit or government legal office. Given the current bar exam, summer is then devoted to study and the test, and then after the bar exam the fellows return for a full year of fellowship-paid work.

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September 5, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Wednesday, August 30, 2023

Abandoning Precedent: The Case For Bringing ChatGPT Into Law Schools

David S. Kemp (The Verdict), Abandoning Precedent: The Case for Bringing ChatGPT into Law Schools:

Open AI ChatGPTThe legal writing classes required of first-year law students tend to polarize students. Some love legal writing, deriving pleasure from the highly formulaic yet eminently adaptable paradigms of legal analysis. Others loathe it, feeling that it stifles creativity, imposing a repetitive and cumbersome structure on what might otherwise be a compelling and concise argument. As a law student, I fell into the former category, but when I became a legal writing professor, I found myself somewhere between the two.

When ChatGPT was released to the public in November 2022, it was similarly polarizing—at least among academic administrators and instructors. Most responded to its arrival with dismay. Renowned linguist Noam Chomsky opined that ChatGPT doesn’t have “anything to do with education except undermining it.” Many school systems and at least one top-tier law school immediately adopted policies to ban its use on written assignments and exams, at least until it was better understood. Some law professors who historically gave open-book final exams expressed grave concerns that students could use ChatGPT to produce decent, if not good, exam answers. Some were more ambivalent, and a minority hailed ChatGPT as a robust tool that could reduce the tedium of law practice. Nearly all feared that students would grow to rely on ChatGPT rather than learn the critical skills of legal analysis and writing. Many educators whose institutions did not globally prohibit ChatGPT did so in their own classrooms and carried on as usual. Others ignored it altogether. I—and a few others—embraced the nascent technology and quickly began discussing it in the classroom.

As someone who fell in love with diagramming sentences in seventh grade and fostered that romance for over a quarter-century to become a writing instructor, I viewed ChatGPT with excitement and trepidation. In ChatGPT, I saw potential. I saw a tool that could almost effortlessly merge the science of technology and art of writing. But most importantly, I saw an opportunity to teach my students not just how to write, but how to adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of legal practice. ...

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August 30, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Wednesday, August 23, 2023

Can ChatGPT-4 Really Do Tax?

Andrew Blair-Stanek (Maryland; Google Scholar), Nils Holzenberger (Institut Polytechnique de Paris) & Benjamin Van Durme (Johns Hopkins; Google Scholar), OpenAI Cribbed Our Tax Example, But Can GPT-4 Really Do Tax?, 180 Tax Notes Fed. 1101 (Aug. 14, 2023):

Tax Notes Federal (2022)In the livestream introducing GPT-4, OpenAI used one of our SARA [acronym for StAtutory Reasoning Assessment] tax cases verbatim, describing it as a real tax example, even though SARA is a simplified academic data set. In the demo, OpenAI also used our heavily edited SARA version of the IRC. OpenAI incorrectly thought GPT-4 had correctly calculated the tax liability because its answer matched the SARA answer, although our IRC edits change the result from the actual IRC. We tested GPT-4 on the entire SARA data set. It gets tax liabilities exactly right around one-third of the time and miscalculates tax liabilities by over 10 percent nearly a quarter of the time. GPT-4 often misreads even our simplified version of the IRC. In the livestream, the presenter warned, “You should always check with your tax adviser.” Wise advice. ...

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August 23, 2023 in Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship, Tax, Tax Analysts, Tax Daily, Tax Scholarship | Permalink

AI Assistance In Legal Analysis: An Empirical Study

Jonathan H. Choi (USC; Google Scholar) & Daniel Schwarcz (Minnesota; Google Scholar), AI Assistance in Legal Analysis: An Empirical Study:

Open AI ChatGPTCan artificial intelligence (AI) augment human legal reasoning? To find out, we designed a novel experiment administering law school exams to students with and without access to GPT-4, the best-performing AI model currently available. We found that assistance from GPT-4 significantly enhanced performance on simple multiple-choice questions but not on complex essay questions. We also found that GPT-4’s impact depended heavily on the student’s starting skill level; students at the bottom of the class saw huge performance gains with AI assistance, while students at the top of the class saw performance declines. This suggests that AI may have an equalizing effect on the legal profession, mitigating inequalities between elite and nonelite lawyers. In addition, we graded exams written by GPT-4 alone to compare it with humans alone and AI-assisted humans.

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August 23, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship, Teaching | Permalink

Thursday, August 17, 2023

The Legal Singularity: How Artificial Intelligence Can Make Law Radically Better

Abdi Aidid (Assistant Professor, University of Toronto Faculty of Law; Specialist, Legal Innovation, Blue J Legal) & Benjamin Alarie (Osler Chair in Business Law, University of Toronto Faculty of Law; CEO, Blue J Legal), The Legal Singularity: How Artificial Intelligence Can Make Law Radically Better (University of Toronto Press 2023):

Legal Singularity (Wide)Law today is incomplete, inaccessible, unclear, underdeveloped, and often perplexing to those whom it affects. In The Legal Singularity, Abdi Aidid and Benjamin Alarie argue that the proliferation of artificial intelligence–enabled technology — and specifically the advent of legal prediction — is on the verge of radically reconfiguring the law, our institutions, and our society for the better.

Revealing the ways in which our legal institutions underperform and are expensive to administer, the book highlights the negative social consequences associated with our legal status quo. Given the infirmities of the current state of the law and our legal institutions, the silver lining is that there is ample room for improvement. With concerted action, technology can help us to ameliorate the problems of the law and improve our legal institutions. Inspired in part by the concept of the "technological singularity," The Legal Singularity presents a future state in which technology facilitates the functional "completeness" of law, where the law is at once extraordinarily more complex in its specification than it is today, and yet operationally, the law is vastly more knowable, fairer, and clearer for its subjects. Aidid and Alarie describe the changes that will culminate in the legal singularity and explore the implications for the law and its institutions.

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August 17, 2023 in Book Club, Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Wednesday, August 16, 2023

ABA Weighs New Free Speech Rule For Law Schools

Reuters, ABA Weighs New Free Speech Rule for Law Schools:

ABA (2023)The American Bar Association may soon require law schools to adopt free speech policies, a change that follows several high-profile campus incidents in which students disrupted controversial speakers.

The ABA’s Council of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar, which oversees law school accreditation, on Friday will consider a new rule mandating “written policies that encourage and support the free expression of ideas.”

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August 16, 2023 in Law School, Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech | Permalink

Saturday, August 12, 2023

Chat GPT Makes A Better Therapist Than A Lawyer

Diana Simon (Arizona), More True Confessions of a Legal Writing Professor: Chat GPT Makes a Better Therapist Than a Lawyer:

ChatGPT (2022)This, at times, irreverent, tongue-in-cheek article is about how Chat GPT (and generative AI in general) makes a better therapist than a lawyer. First, it references examples where generative AI has hallucinated cases, refers to the real-life example where an attorney was sanctioned for submitting fake cases, and refers to the court orders that followed where courts have limited the use of generative AI. Second, it discusses an example of how Google Bard missed a key issue when writing a case brief for first-semester law students and made improvements to an excellent office memo that a student prepared in a way that did not conform to best practices in legal writing.

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August 12, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Saturday, August 5, 2023

Five Ways Generative AI Is Finding Its Way Into Law School

Legal Tech News, 5 Ways Generative AI Is Finding Its Way Into Law School:

Open AI ChatGPTGenerative artificial intelligence quickly permeated through many areas of the legal industry, from its integration to many legal technology solutions, to the new legal challenges facing lawyers and their clients.

But in face of this rapid adoption, the legal education around the potential, and risks, that this new technology presents is struggling to keep up—leaving some attorneys leveraging the wrong tools in the courtroom.

However, some law schools quickly identified such gaps and are now providing additional courses, free resources and training programs to prepare the next generation of legal professionals to work alongside generative AI. ...

Legaltech News looked at five ways generative AI is finding its place in law schools in the U.S.

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August 5, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Tuesday, August 1, 2023

Unlike Michigan, Arizona State Allows Use Of ChatGPT On Law School Applications

Law.com, ASU Law School Welcomes Use of AI Tools on Admission Applications:

Open AI ChatGPTAfter the University of Michigan Law School announced last week that it’s banning the use of artificial intelligence tools for admission applications, the Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law at Arizona State University announced late Thursday that it invites prospective law students to use these tools.

Applicants to its degree programs are permitted to use generative artificial intelligence (AI) in the preparation of their application and certify that the information they submit is accurate, beginning in August, according to ASU Law’s announcement.

“Arizona State University is an institution that embraces change and innovation in all forms,” so the decision to permit the usage of AI tools “will allow for the responsible use of this rapidly evolving technology when future students prepare their application materials,” an ASU spokesperson said in an email to Law.com Thursday.

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August 1, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Saturday, July 29, 2023

Is ChatGPT A Viable Research Alternative To LexisNexis|Westlaw For Some Lawyers?

Legal Tech News, Are Legal Research Costs Tempting Lawyers to Turn to ChatGPT?:

ChatGPT (2022)Earlier this year, the legal community balked at an error that has since become a clarion call for caution when using generative artificial intelligence tools. In May, an attorney used ChatGPT for legal research and filed a brief in federal court that was rife with fake case citations the chatbot had fabricated.

The news caused an uproar, leading to sanctions for the attorney in question, and pushing some judges to require the disclosure of use of generative AI in court filings. Still, it’s evident that when it comes to legal research, attorneys aren’t exactly spoiled for choice.

On one end exists ChatGPT—unreliable but free, or at very low cost—while on the other end are established legal research tools, such as Thomson Reuters’ Westlaw and the LexisNexis suite, which are more costly.

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July 29, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Monday, July 24, 2023

Crespi: How To Grade Law Students In 'Paper Classes' In The Age Of AI

Gregory S. Crespi (SMU; Google Scholar), How To Grade Law Students Taking 'Paper Classes' Given Student Access to Artificial Intelligence Programs: Some Preliminary Thoughts:

Open AI ChatGPTThis short paper presents and discusses a new approach to teaching “paper classes” in law school, given current student access to artificial intelligence programs such as ChatGPT. These programs are now capable of producing research papers in response to carefully structured prompts that with only minor editing are generally sufficient to obtain at least minimal passing grades, and these programs are improving rapidly in their capabilities. This approach attempts to balance several different concerns that are raised by these programs. ...

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July 24, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Saturday, July 22, 2023

Michigan Bans Use Of ChatGPT On Law School Applications

Reuters, Use of ChatGPT Prohibited on Michigan Law School Applications:

Open AI ChatGPTThe admissions department at the University of Michigan Law School is looking for personal statements and application essays that reflect the traits and writing ability of aspiring attorneys.

But those essays better not have been written by ChatGPT.

Michigan Law has explicitly banned the use of the popular online chatbot and other forms of artificial intelligence tools on applications and now requires applicants to certify that they haven’t used those tools in the drafting process—an apparent first among law schools.

ABA Journal, T14 Law School Bans ChatGPT on Application Essays:

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July 22, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

How ChatGPT Could Dramatically Reshape The Legal Industry

ABA, How ChatGPT and Other AI Platforms Could Dramatically Reshape the Legal Industry:

Open AI ChatGPTHi, ChatGPT. What can ChatGPT do for lawyers (in 100 words or less)?

As an AI language model, ChatGPT can provide assistance to lawyers in various ways. It can help with legal research by quickly searching and analyzing large volumes of legal documents and cases to extract relevant information. It can also assist in drafting legal documents such as contracts, briefs and pleadings, by suggesting language and formatting options based on context and legal precedent. Additionally, ChatGPT can assist with legal analysis by providing insights and recommendations on complex legal issues based on its vast database of legal information.

Is ChatGPT trying to take lawyers’ jobs away (in 100 words or less)?

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July 22, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Thursday, July 20, 2023

Dorf On ChatGPT: Is Resistance To AI In The Law School Classroom Futile?

The Verdict Op-Ed:  Is Resistance to AI in the Law School Classroom Futile?, by Michael C. Dorf (Cornell; Google Scholar):

Open AI ChatGPTAs AI becomes integrated into more and more of the productivity tools that lawyers and other professionals routinely use, banning its use in the taking of exams will make less and less sense. Eventually, we will need to learn how to evaluate students’ ability to use AI and other tools effectively. More importantly, we will need to figure out how to teach students to use AI tools effectively.

Before any of that can happen, however, we will need to see how lawyers use AI in practice. It’s sensible for professional education to aim at preparing students for the profession they’re entering. It’s challenging to do so when the nature of that profession is changing rapidly. AI-based tools for managing document discovery have been available to litigators for years, but how practitioners come to use the new generation of large language models and whatever comes after that remains to be seen.

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July 20, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Tuesday, July 18, 2023

Law Schools Must Embrace AI

National Law Journal Op-Ed:  Law Schools Must Embrace AI, by Joseph Landau (Fordham; Google Scholar) & Ron Lazebnik (Fordham):

Open AI ChatGPTArtificial intelligence tools have been around for some time, but the emergence of ChatGPT was a game changer. In legal education, AI holds immense potential to revolutionize our administration, pedagogy, programming, and research. The rise of intelligent machines offers us the opportunity to explore new teaching methods, such as personalized learning experiences, data-driven assessments, and adaptive curricula. By leveraging AI, we can equip our students with the skills necessary to thrive in a technology-driven legal profession.

With summer break in full swing, law schools can reflect on the past year’s experiments with the release of bots like ChatGPT to chart a path for the coming academic year and beyond. While the initial concerns, skepticism and frustration with generative AI in the immediate aftermath of ChatGPT are understandable, it is only by focusing on the convergence of legal technology and legal education that we can best prepare students consistent with our core goals, values and principles. In short, this is the time to engage in strategic thinking and planning so that our students can learn to navigate this evolving landscape now and make important contributions to their fields once they graduate.

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July 18, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Monday, July 17, 2023

Does ChatGPT Make Law School Worth Less As An Investment?

Jonathan Wolf (Rink Noonan, St. Cloud, MN), Do AI Large Language Models Like ChatGPT Make Law School Less Worth It As An Investment?:

Open AI ChatGPTYounger attorneys, despite their tech savvy, could very well find themselves completely displaced.

Artificial intelligence has been pilloried as a career killer across several industries, especially since the latest version of ChatGPT came out. The legal profession has not been immune, and with ChatGPT now able to pass the bar exam, a certain amount of anxiety is warranted. ...

What AI will do, in particular large language models like ChatGPT, is replace some of us, and some of what we do.

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July 17, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Saturday, July 8, 2023

The ChatGPT Commencement Address

Inside Higher Ed, The ChatGPT Commencement Address:

As Wells College graduates gathered last month, President Jonathan Gibralter delivered a commencement address that sounded like countless others delivered across the country. It hit the usual themes: be prepared for challenges and setbacks, cultivate perseverance, and embrace opportunities.

But his speech culminated with a twist.

“Before I end this address, I wanted to let you know that everything I just said to you was written by artificial intelligence. I asked ChatGPT to write a commencement address from the president of Wells College to the graduates,” Gibralter revealed to a surprised audience.

“Why did I do that, and why am I telling you this? Because the world you are graduating into is changing very rapidly, and you have in front of you a world where electric vehicles will replace those powered by fossil fuels, a world where chat bots can replace the need for intellectual curiosity, a world in which some people reflect on their lives by the number of people who are connected to them on social media, a world where people may soon live in the metaverse, and the list goes on and on,” Gibralter told students, challenging them to stay intellectually curious.

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July 8, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Saturday, June 24, 2023

NY Times: ChatGPT Lawyers Are Ordered To Pay $5,000 Fine, Consider Seeking Forgiveness

Following up on my previous posts:

New York Times, ChatGPT Lawyers Are Ordered to Consider Seeking Forgiveness:

A Manhattan judge on Thursday imposed a $5,000 fine on two lawyers who gave him a legal brief full of made-up cases and citations, all generated by the artificial intelligence program ChatGPT.

The judge, P. Kevin Castel of Federal District Court, criticized the lawyers harshly and ordered them to send a copy of his opinion to each of the real-life judges whose names appeared in the fictitious filing.

But Judge Castel wrote that he would not require the lawyers, Steven A. Schwartz and Peter LoDuca, whom he referred to as respondents, to apologize to those judges, “because a compelled apology is not a sincere apology.”

“Any decision to apologize is left to respondents,” the judge added.

The discovery that ChatGPT had helped create the brief in an otherwise unremarkable lawsuit reverberated throughout the legal profession. The revelation also riveted the tech community, which has been debating the dangers of overreliance on artificial intelligence — even as a existential threat to humanity. ...

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June 24, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Monday, June 12, 2023

Lawsky Website With Practice Problems And Quizzes For Federal Income Tax

Sarah Lawsky (Northwestern; Google Scholar) has created a wonderful website that generates practice problems and quizzes for federal income tax. For more details, see the FAQ page.

June 12, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Tax, Tax Daily, Teaching | Permalink

NY Times: The ChatGPT Lawyer Explains Himself In Court

Following up on my previous post, New York Times, Here’s What Happens When A Lawyer Uses ChatGPT:  New York Times, The ChatGPT Lawyer Explains Himself:

Open AI ChatGPTIn a cringe-inducing court hearing, a lawyer who relied on A.I. to craft a motion full of made-up case law said he “did not comprehend” that the chat bot could lead him astray.

As the court hearing in Manhattan began, the lawyer, Steven A. Schwartz, appeared nervously upbeat, grinning while talking with his legal team. Nearly two hours later, Mr. Schwartz sat slumped, his shoulders drooping and his head rising barely above the back of his chair.

For nearly two hours Thursday, Mr. Schwartz was grilled by a judge in a hearing ordered after the disclosure that the lawyer had created a legal brief for a case in Federal District Court that was filled with fake judicial opinions and legal citations, all generated by ChatGPT. The judge, P. Kevin Castel, said he would now consider whether to impose sanctions on Mr. Schwartz and his partner, Peter LoDuca, whose name was on the brief.

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June 12, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Friday, June 9, 2023

Four Tax Questions For ChatGPT And Other Language Models

Libin Zhang (Fried Frank, New York), Four Tax Questions for ChatGPT and Other Language Models, 179 Tax Notes Fed. 969 (May 8, 2023):

Tax-notes-federalSince ChatGPT was released to the public in late 2022, it and other language models have rapidly gained recognition for their ability to respond to queries with natural language text. This article tests the usefulness of three language models, ChatGPT, Bing Chat, and Google Bard, by asking each four tax-related questions:

1. Can I engage in a section 1031 like-kind exchange if I sell my Picasso painting?
2. Does a decedent recognize gain if she dies with assets that have debt in excess of tax basis?
3. Why should the federal government tax stock buybacks?
4. Can you tell me six original jokes about tax lawyers?

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June 9, 2023 in Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship, Tax, Tax Analysts, Tax Daily, Tax Scholarship | Permalink

Tuesday, June 6, 2023

Chat GPT-4 Understands Academic Attrition's Impact On Bar Passage But Does Anyone Else?

Rory D. Bahadur (Washburn) & Kevin Ruth (PhD Mathematics, Miami), Chat Gpt-4 Understands Academic Attrition's Impact on Bar Passage But Does Anyone Else?, 63 Washburn L.J. Online __ (2023):

Artificial Intelligence allows us to understand the relationship between bar passage and academic attrition. This relationship is often obscured by the continued conflation of the concepts of causation and correlation. Disentangling these two concepts is essential to refute the empirically baseless narrative that the bar exam tests competency and to expose the systemic racism and monopolistic business practices the above narrative perpetuates. 

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June 6, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Monday, June 5, 2023

Texas Federal Judge Requires All Lawyers To File Certificate Verifying Any Use Of AI

Following up on my previous post, New York Times, Here’s What Happens When A Lawyer Uses ChatGPT

Open AI ChatGPTEugene Volokh (UCLA; Google Scholar), Federal Judge Requires All Lawyers to File Certificates Related to Use of Generative AI:

The certificates must "attest[] either that no portion of the filing was drafted by generative artificial intelligence (such as ChatGPT, Harvey.AI, or Google Bard) or that any language drafted by generative artificial intelligence was checked for accuracy, using print reporters or traditional legal databases, by a human being."

David Lat (Original Jurisdiction), Judge of the Week: Judge Brantley Starr:

Remember the debacle I discussed last week involving lawyers who filed a brief replete with multiple citations to fake cases, courtesy of ChatGPT? One judge is already taking action to prevent that from happening in his court.

As reported by Professor Eugene Volokh, Judge Brantley Starr (N.D. Tex.) issued a standing order for a “Mandatory Certification Regarding Generative Artificial Intelligence” ... Judge Starr identified two problems with AI tools: “hallucinations,” when they just make stuff up, and bias, when they “act according to computer code rather than conviction, based on programming rather than principle.”

Judge Starr’s order generated ample buzz, positive and negative.

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June 5, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Wednesday, May 31, 2023

Some Law Schools Already Are Using ChatGPT To Teach Legal Research And Writing

ABA Journal, Some Law Schools Already Are Using ChatGPT to Teach Legal Research and Writing:

Open AI ChatGPTChatGPT, an artificial intelligence chatbot that can speak and write like humans, can be weak on facts. But it may already be a better wordsmith than some attorneys, says David Kemp, an adjunct professor at Rutgers Law School.

“If you’re asking it to organize several concepts or are struggling to explain something in a way that’s really understandable, it can help,” says Kemp, who also is the managing editor of Oyez, a multimedia website focused on U.S. Supreme Court opinions.

The technology seems to prefer active voice, as does Kemp. He introduced ChatGPT in an advanced legal writing class and plans to include it in a summer course about emerging technology.

Various law schools are following suit. Legal writing faculty interviewed by the ABA Journal agree that ChatGPT writing can model good sentence and paragraph structure. But some fear that it could detract from students learning good writing skills.

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May 31, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Re-Evaluating GPT-4's Bar Exam Performance

Following up on my previous post, GPT-4 Beats 90% Of Aspiring Lawyers On The Bar Exam:  Eric Martínez (MIT; Google Scholar), Re-Evaluating GPT-4's Bar Exam Performance:

Perhaps the most widely touted of GPT-4's at-launch, zero-shot capabilities has been its reported 90th-percentile performance on the Uniform Bar Exam, with its reported 80-percentile-points boost over its predecessor, GPT-3.5, far exceeding that for any other exam. This paper investigates the methodological challenges in documenting and verifying the 90th-percentile claim, presenting four sets of findings that suggest that OpenAI's estimates of GPT-4's UBE percentile, though clearly an impressive leap over those of GPT-3.5, appear to be overinflated, particularly if taken as a “conservative” estimate representing “the lower range of percentiles,” and moreso if meant to reflect the actual capabilities of a practicing lawyer.

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May 31, 2023 in Legal Ed Scholarship, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Scholarship | Permalink

Tuesday, May 30, 2023

NY Times: Here’s What Happens When A Lawyer Uses ChatGPT

New York Times, Here’s What Happens When Your Lawyer Uses ChatGPT:

Open AI ChatGPTThe lawsuit began like so many others: A man named Roberto Mata sued the airline Avianca, saying he was injured when a metal serving cart struck his knee during a flight to Kennedy International Airport in New York.

When Avianca asked a Manhattan federal judge to toss out the case, Mr. Mata’s lawyers vehemently objected, submitting a 10-page brief that cited more than half a dozen relevant court decisions. There was Martinez v. Delta Air Lines, Zicherman v. Korean Air Lines and, of course, Varghese v. China Southern Airlines, with its learned discussion of federal law and “the tolling effect of the automatic stay on a statute of limitations.”

There was just one hitch: No one — not the airline’s lawyers, not even the judge himself — could find the decisions or the quotations cited and summarized in the brief.

That was because ChatGPT had invented everything.

The lawyer who created the brief, Steven A. Schwartz of the firm Levidow, Levidow & Oberman, threw himself on the mercy of the court on Thursday, saying in an affidavit that he had used the artificial intelligence program to do his legal research — “a source that has revealed itself to be unreliable.”

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May 30, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Monday, May 15, 2023

ABA Increases Law School Online Course Cap From 33% To 50%

Reuters, Law Students Can Take 50% of Classes Online, With ABA Rule Change:

ABA Legal Ed (2022)The arm of the American Bar Association that accredits law schools on Friday voted to increase its limit on distance education courses from one-third of a student’s total credits to half. It also eliminated the rule that students take no more than 10 credit hours of distance education classes during their first year of law school.

Those changes bring the law school accreditation standards in line with distance education limits set by the U.S. Department of Education — which has tasked the ABA with overseeing law schools — and will reduce the number of law schools applying to the ABA for special approval to offer distance education programs that exceed the one-third credit limit.

ABA Journal:

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May 15, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Friday, May 5, 2023

NY Times Op-Ed: A.I. Could Be A Boon To (Legal) Education

New York Times Op-Ed:  A.I. Could Actually Be a Boon to Education, by Peter Coy:

Sal Khan is an uber-nerd, and that’s why people love him. In early 2020, to demonstrate that Khan Academy, his platform for free online education, was a worthy cause, he didn’t produce a brochure with smiling children and glowing testimonials. He made one of his teaching videos, with the usual black screen, colored pens and handwritten equations. The phrase “standard deviation” came up a lot. He multiplied the number of highly active users of his program by their average academic improvement, then linked that to the resulting increase in their projected lifetime earnings, compared it to operating costs and, presto, showed a benefit-cost ratio of 480 to 1, or around 240 to 1 if calculating only the benefits to students in high-need schools.

Those are crazy high benefit-cost ratios, considering that a lot of nonprofits would be happy with a ratio of 10 to 1. I’m not vouching for the calculation, though it seems reasonable at a glance. I’m citing it because Khan has a new plan to make the ratio, whatever it is, even higher. It’s all about harnessing artificial intelligence. I watched a TED Talk he gave on April 18 about his A.I. plans, and I interviewed him last week to get more information.

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May 5, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Thursday, April 27, 2023

ChatGPT Bombs Accounting And Tax Exams: 47% v. 77% For Students

BYU News, ChatGPT Can’t Ace This Test, But Experts Think It Soon Will … What It Means For Teaching:

Last month, OpenAI launched its newest AI chatbot product, GPT-4. According to the folks at OpenAI, the bot, which uses machine learning to generate natural language text, passed the bar exam with a score in the 90th percentile, passed 13 of 15 AP exams and got a nearly perfect score on the GRE Verbal test.

Inquiring minds at BYU and 186 other universities wanted to know how OpenAI’s tech would fare on accounting exams. So, they put the original version, ChatGPT, to the test. The researchers say that while it still has work to do in the realm of accounting, it’s a game changer that will change the way everyone teaches and learns — for the better.

“When this technology first came out, everyone was worried that students could now use it to cheat,” said lead study author David Wood, a BYU professor of accounting. “But opportunities to cheat have always existed. So for us, we’re trying to focus on what we can do with this technology now that we couldn’t do before to improve the teaching process for faculty and the learning process for students. Testing it out was eye-opening.” ...

His co-author recruiting pitch on social media exploded: 327 co-authors from 186 educational institutions in 14 countries participated in the research, contributing 25,181 classroom accounting exam questions. They also recruited undergrad BYU students (including Wood’s daughter, Jessica) to feed another 2,268 textbook test bank questions to ChatGPT. The questions covered accounting information systems (AIS), auditing, financial accounting, managerial accounting and tax, and varied in difficulty and type (true/false, multiple choice, short answer, etc.).

Although ChatGPT’s performance was impressive, the students performed better. Students scored an overall average of 76.7%, compared to ChatGPT’s score of 47.4%. On a 11.3% of questions, ChatGPT scored higher than the student average, doing particularly well on AIS and auditing. But the AI bot did worse on tax, financial, and managerial assessments, possibly because ChatGPT struggled with the mathematical processes required for the latter type.

Chat AccountingThe ChatGPT Artificial Intelligence Chatbot: How Well Does It Answer Accounting Assessment Questions?:

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April 27, 2023 in Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education, Tax, Tax News, Tax Scholarship | Permalink

Saturday, April 8, 2023

NY Times: Conservatives Aim To Build A Chatbot Of Their Own

New York Times, Conservatives Aim to Build a Chatbot of Their Own:

RightWingGPTWhen ChatGPT exploded in popularity as a tool using artificial intelligence to draft complex texts, David Rozado decided to test its potential for bias. A data scientist in New Zealand, he subjected the chatbot to a series of quizzes, searching for signs of political orientation.

The results, published in a recent paper were remarkably consistent across more than a dozen tests: “liberal,” “progressive,” “Democratic” [The Political Biases of ChatGPT].

So he tinkered with his own version, training it to answer questions with a decidedly conservative bent. He called his experiment RightWingGPT.

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April 8, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

Thursday, April 6, 2023

AI Tools for Lawyers: A Practical Guide

Daniel Schwarcz (Minnesota; Google Scholar) & Jonathan H. Choi (Minnesota; Google Scholar), AI Tools for Lawyers: A Practical Guide:

Openai chatgptThis Article provides lawyers and law students with practical and specific guidance on how to effectively use AI large language models (LLMs), like GPT-4, Bing Chat, and Bard, in legal research and writing. Focusing on GPT-4 – the most advanced LLM that is widely available at the time of this writing – it emphasizes that lawyers can use traditional legal skills to refine and verify LLM legal analysis. In the process, lawyers and law students can effectively turn freely-available LLMs into highly productive personal legal assistants.

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April 6, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink

ChatGPT Gets 148 (37th Percentile) And 157 (70th Percentile) On The LSAT

Press Release, ChatGPT LSAT Score Falls Short of Getting Into Top Law Schools:

Open AI ChatGPTBlueprint Prep, a premier test preparation and professional training company, was among the first test prep companies to analyze the LSAT results of #OpenAI's ChatGPT, the artificial intelligence chatbot capable of accurately responding to human language. The chatbot's LSAT results revealed that ChatGPT-3.5 series was unable to meet the typical scores required for admission to a top 14 law school.

A veteran Blueprint Prep LSAT instructor analyzed the chatbot's test results and discovered its chief errors lay in a failure to consistently apply logical and critical reasoning, as well as an inability to distinguish essential information from superfluous material. These are areas where input from an experienced instructor would help ChatGPT better understand the questions and how to interpret them. Despite its less-than-stellar scores, however, ChatGPT was convinced while taking the test that it was answering questions correctly.

"We know that the LSAT is designed to measure a student's analytical reasoning, critical thinking, and reading comprehension skills, which are essential for success in law school," said Gene Suhir, LSAT Academic Manager at Blueprint Prep. "These skills can be significantly strengthened, but to do so requires leveraging proven strategies and top-scoring instructors who can help students get into the mindsets of the test makers. This form of LSAT test prep not only enables the student to process information like a lawyer would, but it's been proven that strengthening reasoning skills via LSAT test prep can help wire students' brains to think more like a lawyer. This is not the specific kind of reasoning that ChatGPT is innately useful for, although it can learn these skills."

The LSAT is scored on a scale of 120-180, with 151 being roughly average. Students usually need a typical score in the 170s to be admitted to one of the nation's top 14 law schools. On the two tests it took, ChatGPT scored a 148 (37th percentile) and a 157 (70th percentile). [148 is the median LSAT score for law schools ranked 187th in this metric for the current 1L class (North Carolina Central, Ohio Northern, Oklahoma City, Western Michigan, Widener (PA)). 157 is the median LSAT score for law schools ranked 98th in this metric for the current 1L class (Kentucky, LSU, Michigan State, Mississippi, Regent, Seattle, Syracuse, Texas Tech).]

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April 6, 2023 in Legal Ed News, Legal Ed Tech, Legal Education | Permalink